A LEVEL

CLASSICAL CIVILISATION YEAR 12

Modules in Years 12 and 13 are taught through a variety of methods, dependent on topic and teacher. Research and preparation of facts and texts is expected along with regular presentations on topics.

Two modules are studied this yearerastotle, The Constitution of Athens (excluding cha

pte

Athenian Democracy

A critical study of the political development of Athens in the sixth and fifth centuries BC and the way democracy operated in the second half of the fifth century BC.

The topic requires study in the areas of history and politics literature.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

• the following three texts:

Aristotle, The Constitution of Athens (excluding chapters I, III, IV, XXIX–XLI, LII–LXIX) as in Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, tr. P J Rhodes, Penguin, 1984, ISBN 9780140444315

and

The Constitution of the Athenians, as in The Old Oligarch: Pseudo-Xenophon’s Constitution of the Athenians, 2nd ed., tr. R Osborne, LACTOR 2, 2004, ISBN 0 903625 318

and

Aristophanes, The Wasps (as in The Frogs and Other Plays, tr. D Barrett, ed. S Dutta, Penguin, 2007, ISBN 978-0140449693)

• the reforms of Solon (including the seisachtheia, classes and their political significance, archonship, Areopagos, assembly, changes to Draco’s lawcode, display of laws, right of appeal, third-party redress, possible introduction of a Council of 400)

• the tyranny of the Peisistratids (including the reasons why, and the means by which, Attica became more politically and economically stable and unified)

• the reforms of Cleisthenes (including demes, tribes, Council of 500, strategoi, possible introduction of ostracism)

• the impact of Themistocles and the growth of the Athenian fleet on the development of democracy

• the reforms of Ephialtes (Areopagos, assembly, Council of 500, lawcourts)

• the reforms of Pericles (including pay and the Citizenship Law)

• the emergence of the so-called demagogues, such as Cleon

• the working of the democratic constitution in the second half of the fifth century BC (including the concept, rights, duties and composition of the citizen body; role of demes; composition and functions of assembly, Council of 500 and prytaneis; appointment and functions of strategoi and archons; dokimasia and euthuna; composition, procedures and political significance of the lawcourts; liturgies; pay; rotation of office; sortition; ostracism; graphe paranomon)

• the social, economic and political reasons for, and consequences of, the above developments

• the structure of the plot of The Wasps, themes, characterisation, use of the chorus, comic techniques and targets whether comic or serious

• the nature of the prescribed texts and problems in their use as evidence for the development and operation of Athenian politics

Homer Iliad

A critical study of selected books of the Iliad and the religious, cultural and social values implicit in the text.

The topic requires study in the areas of

literature

society and values.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned

evaluation of

• the following text - Homer, Iliad, either tr. E V Rieu, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 978-0140447941, or tr. M Hammond, Penguin, 1987, ISBN 978-0140444445 Books 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11 (from Rieu page 196 ‘So they fought like blazing fire’ or from

Hammond page 208 ‘So they fought like burning fire’), 16, 18, 19, 22, 23 and 24

• the structure of the plot

• characterisation

• oral composition

• narrative and descriptive techniques and their effects (including the use of speeches, similes and other imagery)

• themes

• the religious, cultural and social values and concepts implicit in the books prescribed, including

– the role of fate and the gods

– relationships between mortals and immortals, men and women, fathers and sons

– the heroic code and the concepts of honour and revenge

– the portrayal of war.

CLASSICAL CIVILISATION YEAR 13

Two modules are studied this year:

The Persian Wars

A critical study of the Persian Wars 490–479 BC and the political, social and cultural values and concepts of the Greeks and Persians.

The topic requires study in the areas of history and politics literature

society and values.

The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas.

Candidates will be expected to link understanding of the events and personalities of the Persian Wars and the societies and values of the Greeks and Persians to a comparative analysis and evaluation of the two literary sources.

Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of the following texts:

Herodotus, The Histories, tr. A de Sélincourt, rev. ed. A R Burn, Penguin, 2003, ISBN 9780140449082 Books 6, 7 and 8

and

Aeschylus, The Persians (as in Prometheus Bound and Other Plays, tr. P Vellacott, Penguin, 1973, ISBN 9780140441123)

• the nature of these texts as evidence and as representatives of their literary genres

• the reasons for Darius’ invasion at Marathon and for the Athenian victory

• the reasons for Xerxes’ invasion of Greece and for the successes and failures of the Greeks and Persians down to and including the battles of Salamis, Plataea and Mycale

• the role of prominent Persian and Greek personalities in each invasion (including Darius, Miltiades, Xerxes, Themistocles, Leonidas, Mardonius and Pausanias)

• the differing attitudes of the Greek states towards Persia (including medism)

• changes in the relationships between Greek states during the period of the Persian Wars

• the differing political, social and cultural values and concepts of the Persians and Greeks, as illustrated in the Ionian Revolt and Persian Wars, including

–– the ways in which Greeks viewed themselves as opposites of Persians (for example, free and selfgoverning as opposed to servile and despotic)

–– the values and concepts implicit in the re-telling of the Persian Wars and the extent to which they were treated as myth.

Roman Epic

A critical study of selected books of the Aeneid in its religious, political, cultural and social context. The topic requires study in the areas of Literature society and values philosophy, science and religion. The synoptic assessment will draw together knowledge, understanding and skills in these three areas. Candidates will be expected to link understanding of Roman society, religion and values to a comparativeanalysis and evaluation of the books of the Aeneid specified below. Candidates will be required to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and the ability to make a reasoned evaluation of

• the following text: - Virgil, Aeneid, tr. D.West, Penguin 2003 ISBN 978-0140449327, Books 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 12

• the structure of the plot

• characterisation

• narrative and descriptive techniques and their effects (including use of flashback, similes and other imagery)

• themes

• the Homeric and Roman elements

• the religious, political, social and cultural context, including

– belief in fate and the gods

– the nature of human responsibility

– the roles of, and relations between, mortals and immortals, men and women, fathers and sons, Trojans, Greeks, Carthaginians and Italians

– concepts of heroism

– Aeneas’ and Rome’s destiny and mission

– the links between the Aeneid and the historical circumstances in which it was composed

– the values and cultural assumptions implicit in the Aeneid.