Junior Science

First Year Scheme of Work

1st Year Junior Science


Learning Points

Starting Science

Understand the meaning of most safety signs

Draw a suitable graph

Interpret the data on a bar graph

Interpret the data on a line graph

Spot errors (anomalies) in data on a bar graph

Define: independent, dependent and control variables

Identify: independent, dependent and control variables

Understand the importance of hazard signs on chemical tankers

Write suitable risk assessments for simple experiments

Use a Bunsen burner and understand the need for different flames

Identify and draw simple chemical equipment


Understand the terms non-renewable and renewable

Know the advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources

Be able to compare and contrast different energy resources

Describe how energy is measured

Describe different forms of energy stores

Understand that food is a store of chemical energy

Understand that different foods store different amounts of energy

Understand that energy is not created or destroyed but transferred

Be able to name and give examples of the four different ways that energy is transferred

Describe useful energy transfers

Recognise when energy is not usefully transferred

Use Sankey diagrams to show energy transfers

Cells, Tissues and Organs

Set up a microscope at low power

Set up a microscope at high power

I know the position of the major organs in the body: the heart, lungs, liver, brain, kidney and stomach

Draw a diagram of cells seen down a microscope

I know how to prepare a microscope slide to look at cells

Label the structures in all cells: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria

Label the structures in a plant cell: all of the above, plus cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole

I know the role of the major organs

I know the organs found in each of systems: circulatory, respiratory,
digestive and nervous

I know the differences between a plant cell and an animal cell

I know the role of each structure in an animal cell

I know the role of each structure in a plant cell

Explain what a tissue is and give examples

Explain what an organ is and give examples

Explain how a cell is adapted to its role:

· Sperm cell

· Egg cell

· Palisade cell

· Root hair cell

· Red blood cell

· Nerve cell

I know what stem cells are

Explain how some of the problems caused by organ damage have been overcome using technology


Measure the size of a force and use the right units

Identify some different forces and describe how forces change movement

Describe how forces change an object’s shape, speed or direction

Understand that friction is a force that opposes movement

Understand that upthrust pushes upwards and weight pulls downwards

Compare the speeds of different things and give some examples of streamlined objects

Know what can increase friction, air resistance and water resistance

Identify the forces acting on an object and say which direction they are acting in

Describe situations where forces are balanced or unbalanced

Know that if the forces on an object are unbalanced, it will either change shape or speed

Draw and use force diagrams with arrows to show the direction a force is acting in

Describe places where friction is useful and some ways of reducing it where it resists motion

Understand that air resistance is the force of friction of air on objects moving through it

Describe how streamlining reduces air and water resistance

Understand that if an object’s speed changes then the forces acting on it must be unbalanced

That if the forces on an object are balanced then it moves at a constant speed

Describe how air and water resistance change with speed and begin to link these ideas to the particle model

Understand about the forces on falling objects

Use the particle model to explain scientifically why air and water resistance increase with speed

Explain the relationship between the forces on a falling object

Explain how unbalanced forces cause an object to accelerate

Particles and Solutions

Describe how everything is made of particles

Classify the way in which particles are arranged

Explain the ways the particles behave

Describe and define changes of state

Explain the link between energy and changes of state

Describe how particles can spread out

Explain how temperature affects the rate of diffusion using particle theory

Recognise physical changes

Describe some chemical reactions

Know that physical changes are often reversible

Explain key words; Solvent, Solution, Solute, Insoluble, Soluble, Dissolving, Dissolved

Describe the way sugar dissolves

Discuss how the solubility changes

Evaluate evidence for the effect of temperature on solubility

Identify the components of some mixtures

Describe and explain how you would separate out an insoluble solute, a soluble solute and the solvent

Know that distillation can be used to separate a liquid from the solids dissolved in it

Understand the changes of state in distillation

Explain the process of distillation in term of particles

Know that a mixture of two or more solutes which are soluble in a solvent can be separated by chromatography

Use particle ideas to explain how chromatography works

Evaluate the evidence for different ways to separate mixtures of liquids and solids

Assess the hazards of using materials such as flammable solvents


State the changes that occur in a male during puberty: growth spurt, voice breaks, hair grows on face and around genitals and in armpits, production of sperm, broadening of shoulders

State the changes that occur in a female during puberty: growth spurt, menstrual cycle starts, hips widen, breasts develop, hair grows in pubic area and in armpits

Explain the changes occurring in the menstrual cycle

Interpret information and data on the changes occurring during puberty

Describe how and where human fertilisation occurs

Explain what fertilisation means

Explain the difference between fertilisation and conception

Know that the male sex cell is the sperm and it is produced in the testis

Know that the female sex cell is the egg and it is produced in the ovary

Label the male reproductive parts: testis, penis, glands, sperm tube

Label the female reproductive parts: ovary, oviduct, vagina, uterus, cervix

Explain how a sperm is adapted for its role

Explain how identical and non-identical twins are formed

Describe foetal development

Know how long pregnancy lasts in humans

Describe what happens during labour and recognise the difference between birth and labour

Know the role of the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid during pregnancy

Explain the role of the placenta in the exchange of oxygen and food from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood and carbon dioxide and other wastes from the baby’s blood to the mother’s blood

Know about different forms of contraception

Describe the male and female reproductive organs and cells of plants

Explain the differences between pollination and fertilisation

From observation, describe the difference between insect and wind-pollinated flowers


I know what a telescope is used for

I know why we have day and night

I can name the planets in the Solar System

I know that gravity is the force which acts on objects and pulls them towards the centre of the Earth

I know the force of gravity on objects is called weight

I know that I would weigh less on the Moon than I do on the Earth

I can describe why unmanned space probes are used

I can describe why we have the seasons

I can describe the phases of the Moon

I know that gravity acts everywhere in the Solar System including on the Earth and Moon

I know that mass and weight are different and I can give examples of each

I know the difference between a natural and an artificial satellite

I know why we are exploring space

I understand that gravity pulls all objects together and what the size of the force depends on

I can describe how mass and weight are different and how gravity causes weight

I can use information to compare gravity and explain why weight is different on different planets

I can describe some uses of satellites

I can describe how spacecraft are launched

I know some of the benefits of using a space telescope

I can explain how gravity keeps planets and satellites in position

I can describe how the forces on rockets or satellites change as they travel away from the Earth

I can explain some of the factors that limit space exploration