Junior Science

Second Year Scheme of Work

2nd Year Junior Science


Learning Points

Atoms and Elements

Know that all materials are made from elements

Describe an element

Describe an atom

Know the general properties of some elements e.g. metals vs non-metals

Describe how elements are organised in the Periodic Table

Know that elements are represented by symbols

Explain what we mean by compounds

Recognise that compounds have different properties to the elements from which it is made

Make some compounds

Learn how to name a compound (limited to two elements and three where one is oxygen)

Write word equations

Recognise the observations made when elements react

Understand that a compound always has the same formula

Link compound formula to particle diagrams

Perform an experiment to determine the simple ratios found in compounds

Explain the differences between mixtures and compounds

Describe air as a mixture

Describe and explain how to separate mixtures effectively

Link mixtures to particle diagrams

Waves (Sound and Light)

Understand that both light and sound travel in waves

Understand that light and sound are energy transfers (radiation)

Understand that light travels much faster than sound

Understand that light can travel through a vacuum but sound cannot

Explain how shadows form

Explain two ways of changing the size of a shadow

Understand that light travels from light sources to our eyes so we can see them

Describe how light is reflected at plane (flat) surfaces

Understand that we see objects’ reflected light

Demonstrate the Law of Reflection at plane (flat) surfaces

Describe how light is refracted at plane (flat) surfaces

Explain why light refracts as it enters different materials

Describe how a prism affects white light, dispersion

Recognise refraction and dispersion and give examples of each

Understand that filters and coloured objects absorb some colours (and transmit or reflect others)

Explain why coloured objects look different in coloured lights

Describe how we hear sound, including the structure of the ear

Understand that amplitude is the loudness of sound

Understand that frequency is the pitch of sound

Understand that sound can also be reflected, refracted and absorbed

Microbes and Disease

Understand the term ‘pathogen’ and know that pathogens may be fungi, bacteria, protoctists or viruses

Describe the features common to fungi, bacteria, virus and protoctist

Give some examples of the 4 groups

Name the main scientists in microbiology (Snow, Pasteur, Koch)

Understand what causes disease

Explain Pasteur’s experiment

Understand that some micro-organisms can cause disease

Understand the different mechanisms of transmission

Visualise how diseases can be transmitted

Conduct an experiment using agar plates

Describe the non-specific response (i.e barriers to infection)

Describe how the immune system responds to disease using white blood cells

Understand that immunisation helps to protect against some diseases

Know that antibodies can pass through the placenta to the foetus and through breast milk to a baby

Understand that vaccines contain material which stimulates body defences

Know that not all diseases caused by micro-organisms can easily be treated by drugs

Understand that some medicines contain antibiotics which kill bacteria or prevent their growth

Understand the role of yeast in the production of beer

Describe a simple experiment to investigate carbon dioxide production by yeast, in different conditions

Chemical Reactions

Know when and how to use beakers, conical flasks, measuring cylinders, test tubes and boiling tubes

Be able to convert between different units used to make measurements in science

Recap the significance of hazard symbols

Be able to record observations clearly and accurately and infer whether or not a chemical reaction has taken place

Understand that mass changes only occur when the reactants or products of a chemical reaction involve the gas state

Be able to predict if the mass of a container will increase, decrease or stay the same during a reaction

Investigate some ways of collecting gases including under water, gas syringe and upward/downward delivery

Evaluate each method and be able to select appropriate methods given the properties of particular gases

Know some common examples of acids and alkalis in the home

Identify some common household acids and alkalis using indicators and the pH scale

Know that acids and alkalis react together in neutralisation reactions

Know some examples of where neutralisation reactions are useful

Know the reactivity series for metals and how this affects what they are used for and how they are extracted

Know how metals react with acids

Know the test for hydrogen gas

Understand the meaning of a displacement reaction

Conduct experiments to determine where metals fall on the reactivity series based on displacement reactions

The Human Body

Identify examples of each type of food

Explain the importance of a balanced diet

Evaluate the danger of eating too much salt

Identify different food groups using reagents

Understand the need for a digestive system to provide nutrients to the body

Understand the importance of peristalsis

Discuss the roles of different types of teeth

Understand the importance of enzymes

Use Visking tubing to model the digestive system and show what substances can pass through its lining

Understand the need for a circulatory system to pump blood around the body and provide cells with oxygen and nutrients

Know the different components of blood

Understand the importance of the respiratory system in providing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide

Explain that respiration provides energy for processes

Label a skeleton to show where the different bones are found

Describe that different bones have different jobs and this is reflected in their structure

Describe some joints, where they are found and their different uses

Explain how the body is adapted for movement

Understand how antagonistic pairs work

Understand the importance of exercise

Know the effects of smoking

Electrical Circuits

Build series circuits and draw them using circuit diagrams

Use the terms current, potential difference and resistance in my explanations

Measure the current in a circuit

Describe the effect on the brightness of bulbs of connecting them in series

Describe how current flows in series and parallel circuits

Build parallel circuits and draw them using circuit diagrams

Measure the voltage in a circuit

Link the number of cells in a circuit to energy transfers in circuits

Describe the term resistance

Describe what affects resistance in a circuit

Explain the relationship between the resistance of a component and the current it allows to flow

Explain the effect on current of connecting bulbs in series and parallel

Describe how the current in various parts of a parallel circuit is affected by the resistance of the components

Apply different models of potential difference and energy changes to a circuit

Explain the behaviour of circuits using a charge flow model

Understand that the potential difference change across part of a circuit is a measure of its energy transfer

Explain the relationship between potential difference and energy transfer